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Its fragmentary condition has been accounted for in various ways. The fragments are not all contemporaneous. The text of the majority of them is older than Pseudo-Jonathan. Many of these fragments, especially the aggadic paraphrases, agree with Pseudo-Jonathan, which may, on the other hand, be older than some of them. Similarly, aggadic additions were made to the text of the Targum in later centuries, so that a North African manuscript of alludes to the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in Barzillai wrote of these additions: "The Jerusalem Targum contains aggadic sayings added by those who led in prayer and who also read the Targum, insisting that these sayings be recited in the synagogue as interpretations of the text of the Bible.

According to W. Bacher, the nucleus of the Jerusalem Targum is older than the Babylonian one, which was, in his opinion, redacted from it. This Targum gradually became recognized as the official Aramaic version of the Prophets. According to P. Churgin, its final redaction was accomplished by the seventh century c. Like the Targum to the Pentateuch, it originated in the synagogue, where it was recited after every three verses from the Hebrew text of the Prophets during that part of the service.

According to the Babylonian Talmud Meg. Uzziel "at the dictation of Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The account continues to relate that because of this translation the entire land of Israel was shaken and a voice from heaven cried out: "Who has revealed my secrets to man?

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Bacher the Targum to Job, which was withdrawn from circulation by Gamaliel i, may have resulted from Jonathan's attempts to translate the Hagiographa. Jonathan b. In the Babylonian Talmud, this Targum is quoted quite frequently by R.


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Joseph b. Thus, as early as the beginning of the fourth century, the Targum to the Prophets was recognized as being of ancient authority. Joseph as its author, since he cited passages from it with the words "Rav Joseph has translated. Targum Jonathan contains Eastern as well as Western Aramaic linguistic traits. Pahlavi dast , "hand," dastag , "bundle," Farsi daste , "handle," Judg.


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  • Its style is very similar to that of Targum Onkelos, especially in the Former Prophets — the historical narratives. In the prose sections one meets an occasional reading which is not in the masoretic text Josh. Proper names are sometimes transformed into their often, surely, merely guessed up-to-date appellations ibid. The usual rules of targumic interpretation are observed in the rendering of anthropomorphic expressions and figurative language Hos.

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    Poetic passages are drastically paraphrased e. The same holds true for difficult passages, where paraphrasis is specially employed in an attempt to explain the Hebrew text cf. The rendering in the Latter Prophets is more paraphrastic on the whole than the Former Prophets, which is to be expected in view of their more exalted and rhapsodic style cf. Targum Jonathan's amplification of the Heb. This Targum is noteworthy for its unity of style and character throughout the historical as well as the prophetic books. A conspicuous affinity exists between Targum Jonathan and Targum Onkelos, as seen from certain passages which are identical word for word.

    Most of the early writers on this subject recognized this identity but differed in their conclusions. Lagarde, Prophetica Chaldaica , , in the form of 80 extracts. Bacher investigated their character in his detailed article "Kritische Untersuchungen zum Prophetentargum" in zdmg, 28 , 1— The language is Palestinian in character, yet its aggadic additions are frequently traceable to the Babylonian Talmud. This Targum thus belongs to a later period, when the Babylonian Talmud began to exercise a considerable amount of influence on Palestinian literature.

    Sperber, The Bible in Aramaic , 2 , ix—x, 3 , xi, 23—25, —5, —80; for Tosefta to Targum Onkelos, see 1 , xvii—xviii, — For a list of targumic Toseftas see Klein, Genizah , xxix. Although there are extant Targums to the Hagiographa, they did not enjoy official recognition. They did not originate until a later period, and were written at different times by various authors, yet they contain old material. Bacher considers them to have originated in Palestine, since they contain expressions known in the Jerusalem Talmud and the Midrash, although in the Targums to the Five Scrolls many linguistic features of the Aramaic of the Babylonian Talmud occur.

    Their unofficial status was probably due to the fact that they were not used in the public synagogue service with the exception of Esther, though in later times all Five Scrolls were used in the liturgy of the synagogue or school. The Targum to the Book of Job, which existed in the first century c. Its relation to the Aramaic translation of Job from Qumran see below is a matter for speculation.

    The various Targums of this part of the Bible may be conveniently classified into three categories: Targums of Job, Psalms, and Proverbs; of the Five Scrolls; and of Chronicles. This Targum and that of Psalms may have had a common origin, in view of the many similarities between them. Both aim at giving a fairly faithful rendering of the Hebrew text, and although aggadic additions are present from time to time, they are brief and can easily be separated from the translation itself. In such cases, one of the translations is generally aggadic, while the other is more literal.

    About six verses in Job even have a third rendering. Another common feature of these two Targums is the fact that between them they contain about a hundred variants in vowels and even consonants from the masoretic text, a feature not found with such frequency in the other Targums. In both the two constant themes are the law of God and its study as well as the future life and its retribution.

    A preliminary study on some of the fragments was published by J.

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    This was followed by their editio princeps, and then byan edition by Sokoloff bibliography in A neglected fragment was rediscovered by Reed and Zuckerman in This Targum is partly allegorical and partly literal; thus it was probably the work of more than one hand. The paraphrase in it is explanatory rather than simply expansive e. An indication of an early date is Psalms , which still mentions the Western Roman Empire.

    In Psalms 18 the targumist has availed himself of the Targum to ii Samuel 22, although without adopting the linguistic peculiarities of the Babylonian recension of Targum Jonathan. A unique feature of this Targum is its striking similarity to the Peshitta. Various explanations have been offered for this phenomenon Komlosh, 31— Some think that the Targum was influenced by the Peshitta and was actually a Jewish recension of it; others consider the possibility of both versions being separate reworkings of an older Aramaic version. About one third of the verses in this Targum agree with the Peshitta against the reading of the Hebrew original e.

    The Targums of these books are essentially a collection of Midrashim, and consequently they are exclusively paraphrastic and verbose in form. Only in a few instances, where no Midrash can be utilized, are they literal in their approach. The exception is the text of the Targum Esther in the Antwerp Polyglot, which is almost a literal translation; the text of the London Polyglot, which is essentially the same as that of the Antwerp Polyglot but has many aggadic additions, is now the standard Targum text to Esther.

    It is much more voluminous than the first Targum of this scroll and is regarded as an amalgam from other Targums and Midrashim. The commentators refer to it as " aggadah " and as "Midrash.


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    The Targum of Song of Songs interprets the biblical book as an allegory on the relation between God and Israel and on the history of Israel. The types of paraphrase employed by the various Targums to the Five Scrolls may be summarized as follows: historical parallels; motives and reasons to explain the occurrences of events; etymology and explanation of proper names; figurative language rendered into prose and allegory in the place of narrative; the Sanhedrin, as well as the study of the law, frequently mentioned; appendance of elaborate genealogies to names; and general statements related to names of particular individuals, such as the Patriarchs, Nimrod, Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, Titus, Alexander, and the Messiah.

    No Targum to this book was known to exist until the appearance of the Polyglot Bibles.

    Bible Interpretations Thirtenth Series July 1-September 30, 1894

    It was first published, in a somewhat incomplete form, in —83 from an Erfurt manuscript of and edited with notes and translation by M. In a more complete form of the text was edited by D. Wilkins on the basis of a Cambridge manuscript of , which contained a later revision of the targumic text. This Targum is essentially a literal rendering of the Hebrew original, although midrashic amplifications are also employed at times e. Instances where the author made use of "Jerusalem" Targums to the Pentateuch are Genesis and i Chronicles , and Genesis and i Chronicles Similarly, acquaintance with Targum Jonathan to the Prophets is suggested when one compares the readings from the books of Samuel and Kings to the readings from the Targum in the synoptic passages in Chronicles, only slight variations occurring between them.

    The date of the Targum may be surmised from the translation of geographical names, as well as their rendering into modern forms.

    The final redaction of the Erfurt manuscript has been assigned to the eighth century, and that of the Cambridge manuscript to the ninth century c.